Water contamination – Types, sources, effects, solutions

Access to clean and safe water is a basic human right, but many communities face the challenge of lacking water, resulting in serious health risks, environmental impacts, and economic consequences. According to the United Nations, up to 1 in 4 people does not have access to safe drinking water.

Out of those, a significant percent resort to using unsafe water. When water is considered unsafe to drink, it is due to contamination. This can be caused by various sources, including industrial and agricultural waste, sewage, and natural events like hurricanes and floods. Their presence can make it unsafe for drinking, cooking, and bathing, leading to serious health issues for those who consume it.

In this article, we will delve into the causes and types of water contamination and their effects on public health, the economy, the environment, and communities. We will also explore potential solutions and best practices for preventing and mitigating water pollution, so that everyone can have access to safe and clean water.

Types of water contamination

The main forms contaminants take are:

  1. Physical contaminants: solid particles that are suspended in water and can affect its clarity, color, and overall appearance. These contaminants can be caused by natural events such as storms and erosion, or human activities like construction and land development. They include sediments, dust and other suspended solids.
  2. Chemical contaminants: substances that are not naturally found in water and can have harmful effects on human health and the environment. These include toxic chemicals, pesticides, fertilizers, heavy metals, salts, and minerals. Some of these contaminants can have serious health effects, including cancer, birth defects, and neurological damage. Additionally, they can harm aquatic life and wildlife, and impact the quality of water for recreational activities like fishing and swimming.
  3. Biological contaminants: matter of organic origin, whether living or not. Living organisms, such as bacteria, viruses, algae, fungi, and parasites, can be found in water sources that have come into contact with animal or human waste. These contaminants can cause serious health problems, including gastrointestinal illnesses, skin infections, and respiratory diseases.
  4. Radiological contaminants: radioactive elements and isotopes that can enter water sources through nuclear accidents, mining, and other sources. These contaminants can cause cancer, birth defects, and other health problems if ingested or absorbed through the skin.
  5. Disinfection byproducts: chemicals that are formed as a result of the disinfection process used to treat drinking water. These chemicals can have negative health effects, including cancer, birth defects, and reproductive problems. While technically a form of chemical contaminants, they deserve their own category due to their unique source.

Sources of water contamination

The main causes of water contamination are due to human activities which result in pollution, but natural events also play a role. Some significant sources of water contamination include:

  1. Agricultural activities: The use of pesticides, fertilizers, and failures in animal waste management, can all lead to water contamination through runoff and leaching. When rainwater washes over fields treated with pesticides and fertilizers, it can carry these chemicals into nearby streams, rivers, and groundwater aquifers. Similarly, animal waste from feedlots and farms can contain bacteria, viruses, and parasites that can contaminate water sources if not properly managed.
  2. Industrial waste: Industries generate a variety of chemicals and heavy metals as byproducts of their operations. If these materials are not properly disposed of or stored, they can leak into nearby water sources, contaminating them. Leakage from underground storage tanks, such as those used to store gasoline and oil, can also contribute to groundwater contamination.
  3. Sewage: Human waste, as well as waste from industry and agriculture, can enter water sources through sewage treatment plant discharges and septic systems. Improperly treated sewage can contain a wide range of contaminants, including bacteria, viruses, and chemicals, that can pose a risk to human health and the environment.
  4. Natural events: Storms, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions, can also cause water contamination. Some of these events are accentuated indirectly by human actions, such as storm intensity increasing due to climate change or landslides being caused not just by rain, but also by improper land use, while others are more or less beyond human activity, such as volcanic eruptions. These events can disrupt water sources, causing sediment runoff and contamination from chemicals, heavy metals, and other pollutants. They can also cause physical damage to water treatment facilities, making it difficult to properly treat water for safe use.
  5. Mining: The process of extracting minerals and metals from the earth is usually intensive, using up large amounts of water and releasing many potentially toxic byproducts, which can also contribute to water contamination. During the mining process, heavy metals and other contaminants can be released into nearby water sources, posing a risk to human health and the environment.
  6. Urbanization: As urban areas expand through construction and land development, they can cause sediment runoff, which can carry chemicals, heavy metals, and other pollutants into nearby water sources. Additionally, the increased use of household cleaning products and personal care items in urban areas can lead to increased levels of chemical contamination in water.

Effects of the most common water contaminants

All water contaminants negatively affect human activity, as well as the rest of the biosphere. Health risks are a particularly high concern, as some contaminants can pose serious health risks, including illness, disease, and even death. Contaminants like bacteria and viruses can cause disease outbreaks, while chemicals and heavy chemicals can cause long-term declines in human health and birth defects that are only noticed when it is too late.

Contaminants can also have negative impacts on the health of ecosystems, such as killing aquatic life and harming wildlife. For example, microplastics found in both freshwater and seawater have been observed to affect the development and behavior of both plankton and fish. Algal blooms caused by agricultural runoff can decimate entire lakes, and these algae can then produce toxins which then threaten humans.

Contaminated water can affect the taste, odor, and appearance of water, making it unpleasant for drinking, cooking, and bathing, leading to decreased quality of life. It puts a higher burden on medical systems, requires more expensive treatment, and can affect economic activities, such as agriculture and water tourism. This can lead to a vicious cycle, where people who afford to decide to leave affected communities, resulting in further economic and social damage, which means the community has even less chances to deal with contamination.

However, some particularly common and noteworthy contaminants include:

  1. Chlorine – a common disinfectant used to treat drinking water, but it can also form harmful byproducts, such as trihalomethanes (THMs), which pose a risk to human health. Chronic exposure to THMs has been linked to an increased risk of cancer and other health problems.
  2. Arsenic – a naturally occurring element that can be found in groundwater, especially in areas with high levels of volcanic activity. Arsenic is toxic and can cause skin lesions, cancer, and other health problems.
  3. Lead – a toxic metal that can enter water sources through aging plumbing systems and lead service lines. Chronic exposure to lead can cause developmental problems in children and lead to cardiovascular disease, kidney problems, and other health problems in adults.
  4. Mercury – another toxic metal that can enter water sources through industrial waste, coal-fired power plants, and other sources. Chronic exposure to mercury can cause neurological problems such as Minamata disease and other health problems.
  5. Coliform bacteria – commonly used as indicators of water contamination. Their presence can indicate the presence of other harmful pathogens and can cause stomach and intestinal problems.
  6. Nitrates – commonly found in agricultural runoff and can cause a birth condition called blue baby syndrome, which can be fatal to infants.
  7. Pesticides – like nitrates, they can enter water sources through runoff and leaching from agricultural fields. Chronic exposure to pesticides has been linked to a variety of health problems, including cancer, birth defects, and endocrine disruption.

Solutions to water contamination

There are many ways to address water contamination, and they should be seen not as mutually-exclusive options, but as complementary elements that can and should be used in a holistic, integrated approach to ensure the well-being of both humans and the environment.

The first line of defense is found within policy and regulation. By setting standards for water quality, providing funding for treatment and protection programs, and enforcing penalties for those who violate regulations, policymakers can both minimize water pollution and provide relief, alternatives, and solutions to the affected communities.

Source protection measures, such as improving agricultural practices to reduce runoff and leaching, properly disposing of industrial waste, and maintaining sewage treatment plants and septic systems, can help prevent contamination from entering water sources in the first place, which makes them the next most important measure.

Public education about the importance of water quality, the sources of water contamination, and the steps that can be taken to prevent it, can help raise awareness and encourage individuals to take action to protect their own health and the health of their communities. It can also make communities engage in dialogues with the various stakeholders, making compromises and alternatives easier to find and apply.

When the above preventive steps fail to stop the contamination of water, treatment and filtration processes, such as reverse osmosis, activated carbon filtration, and ultraviolet disinfection, can remove or reduce the levels of various contaminants in drinking water, including chemicals, heavy metals, bacteria, and viruses. While usually effective, these processes can be energetically intensive and expensive, and their byproducts themselves can become a contaminant.

Regular monitoring and testing of water sources can detect the presence of contaminants and allow for timely action to be taken to prevent or reduce their levels, which allows to both verify the efficiency of existing regulations and source protection measure and to effectively allocate the resources needed for water treatment.

Lastly, as a temporary solution until the contamination is dealt with or as a permanent solution when the cause is unfixable (such as the geological presence of high quantities of Arsen within the groundwater), switching to alternative water sources, such as surface water or desalinated seawater, can provide a safer and more reliable source of d water in areas where sources are contaminated.

The role of ultrasonic algae control

In this context, where contaminants are a constant cause of concern for public and environmental health, and solutions are often complex, expensive, and can even bring with them massive drawbacks, such as chlorine byproducts, our technology becomes a key innovation. LG sonic has already proven its capacity to stop algal blooms in various applications with efficient cost and negligible environmental damage. In the context of an integrated approach to biological contaminants, combined with early-warning monitoring of bodies of water susceptible to algal blooms, our technology could quickly stop such events, without having a negative impact on the surrounding ecosystem.


Water contamination is a serious issue that affects the health and well-being of both people and the environment. With various sources of contamination, both human and natural, it’s important to be vigilant and take action to prevent and reduce the levels of contaminants in our water sources. From treatment and filtration to source protection and public education, there are many strategies that can be used to ensure safe and clean drinking water for all.

Ultimately, protecting our water sources is not just about safeguarding our health, but also preserving the quality of life for future generations. By working together and taking a comprehensive approach, we can overcome the challenges posed by water contamination and secure a safe and healthy future for everyone.